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Laryngeal reflexes in North-West Indo-European

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Assuming a common North-West Indo-European community and language, we can establish these common developments, from which to derive changes in daughter proto-languages Italo-Celtic, Pre-Germanic, and potentially Pre-Balto-Slavic, or alternatively its Temematic substrate[Holzer 1989].

Initially before consonant or resonant

Initially before PIE consonants or resonants laryngeals are lost. This is the result in most historic languages, except in Greek, Armenian and Anatolian, where they are preserved with some limitations in all of them.

PIE *h₁rudʰrós → NWIE *rudʰrós, ‘red’; cf. Gr. ἐρυθρός, Lat. ruber, Goth. rauþs.

PIE *h₁smós(i) → NWIE *smos(i), ‘we are’.

PIE *h₁imós(i) → NWIE *imós(i),’we go’.

PIE *h₂iu̯- u̯Hens- → NWIE *i̯úwōn ‘young’, cf. Lat. iuuenis, O Ind., yúvan-.

PIE *h₂sters → NWIE *stḗr ‘star’, but cf. Gr. ἀστήρ.

PIE *h₃lígos → NWIE *lígos ‘little, scarce’, cf. Gr. ὀλίγος, Arm. aɫk`‘poor’, Lith. Ligà ‘illness’.

PIE *h₃minégʰmi / *h₃míngʰoh₂ → NWIE *minégʰmi / míngʰō, ‘I piss’.

PIE *h₃r̥néumi → NWIE *r̥néumi, ‘I move’.

PIE *h₁úpo → NWIE *úpo, ‘under’.

PIE *h₂/₃upélos → NWIE *upélos, ‘evil’.

PIE *h₂u̯ésoh₂ → NWIE *wésō, ‘I stay’.

PIE *h₁pi̯oh₂ → NWIE *ápi̯ō, ‘I reach’.

PIE *h₃bʰruHs → NWIE *bʰrūs, ‘eyebrow’.

Initially before vowel

PIE *h₁ésmi → NWIE *ésmi, ‘I am’.

PIE *h₁ómHsos → NWIE *ómsos, ‘shoulder’.

PIE *h₁édsi → NWIE *édsi, ‘you eat’.

PIE *h₁óngʷ-ols → NWIE *óngʷōl ‘coal’.

PIE *h₁eíti → NWIE *eíti, ‘goes’.

PIE *h₁óimos → NWIE *óimos, ‘march’.

PIE *h₁egóh₂ → NWIE *egṓ, ‘I’.

PIE *h₁ógʷʰis → NWIE *ógʷʰis, ‘worm, snake’.

PIE *h₂énus → NWIE *ánus, ‘grandmother’.

PIE *h₁órsos → NWIE *órsos, ‘tail’.

PIE *h₂égeti → NWIE *ágeti, ‘bears’.

PIE *h₂ógmos → NWIE *ógmos, ‘track’.

PIE *h₃enos → NWIE *ónos, ‘load’.

PIE *h₂eiu̯ós → NWIE *aiu̯ós, ‘lifetime-lasting’.

PIE *h₃éu̯is → NWIE *óu̯is, ‘sheep’.

PIE *h₂óiu̯u → NWIE *óiu̯u, ‘vital energy’.

PIE *h₃épos → NWIE *ópos, ‘work’.

PIE *h₃ólh₁neh₂ → NWIE *ṓlnā, ‘elbow’.

PIE *h₃éidos → NWIE *óidos, ‘tumor’.

PIE *h₃ókʷo- → NWIE *ókʷos, ‘eye’.

Special cases: initial vocalization

PIE *h₂íh₂si̯eh₂ → NWIE *óisi̯ā, ‘rudder’.

PIE *h₂u̯H₁i- → NWIE *áu̯is, ‘bird’. PIE *h₂ń̥h₂e → NWIE *ána, ‘on’. PIE *h₂ŕ̥gn̥tom → NWIE *árgn̥tom. PIE *(H?)álbhos → NWIE *álbʰos, ‘white’, cf. Hitt. alpa-, ‘cloud’.

Double initial laryngeals

PIE *hºhu̯₂etmos → NWIE *átmos, ‘breath’.

PIE *h₂/₃eh₃imi → NWIE *ṓimi, ‘I believe’.

PIE *hºhu̯₂etméns → NWIE *ātmḗn, ‘spirit’.

PIE *h₃éhu̯₃smi → NWIE *ṓsmi, ‘I open’.

PIE *h₃ºhu̯₃sis → NWIE *óusis, ‘ear’.

PIE *Héhi₂dmi → NWIE *ā́dmi, ‘I dry’.

PIE *H₁óH₂u̯i̯om → NWIE *ṓu̯ii̯om, ‘egg’.

PIE *h₃ehu̯₃s → NWIE *ōs, ‘mouth’.

PIE *Hº₃eHi₂kris → NWIE *ókris, ‘summit’.

PIE *HoHu̯o₁los → NWIE *áulos, ‘tube’.

Internally before a vowel

PIE *dʰh₁ent → NWIE *dʰent, ‘they placed’.

PIE *sth₂ent → NWIE *stant, ‘they stood’.

PIE *dh₃ent → NWIE *dont, ‘they gave’.

PIE *h₂u̯oh₁dʰh₁éi̯oh₂ → NWIE *u̯ōdʰéi̯ō, ‘I push’.

PIE *skʷh₂ólos → NWIE *skʷólos, ‘stumbling’ (noun).

PIE *h₂u̯óh₁dʰh₁onom → NWIE *u̯ṓdʰonom, ‘pushing’.

PIE *skélh₂onom → NWIE *skélonom, ‘splitting’.

PIE *somh₂ós → NWIE *somós, ‘same’.

PIE *réth₂onti → NWIE *rétonti, ‘they run’.

PIE *h₁ésHos → NWIE *ésos, ‘master, lord’.

II.3.6. Internally before vowel, after resonant

PIE *mélh₂esi → NWIE *mélesi (not ˣmélasi), ‘you grind’.

PIE *sténh₂esi → NWIE *sténesi (not ˣsténasi), ‘you resound’.

Second position in compounds

PIE *neu̯ognh₁ós → NWIE *neu̯ognós ‘newly born’.

PIE *kʷékʷlh₁o- → NWIE *kʷékʷlom ‘wheel’.

Internally after a vowel

PIE *h₁réh₁poh₂ → NWIE *rḗpō, ‘I creep’.

PIE *Hréh₃doh₂ → NWIE *rṓdō, ‘gnaw’.

PIE *meh₂térs → NWIE *mātḗr, ‘mother’.

PIE *meh₂is → NWIE *māis, ‘more’

PIE *péh₂smi → NWIE *pā́smi, ‘I heed’.

PIE *préh₂tis → NWIE *prā́tos, ‘sale’.

PIE *dʰidʰéh₁mi → NWIE *dʰidʰḗmi, ‘I put’.

PIE *gígnh₁H₂ei → NWIE *gígnāi, ‘I am born’.

PIE *stistéh₂mi → NWIE *stistā́mi, ‘I stand’.

PIE *didéh₃mi → NWIE *didṓmi, ‘I give’.

PIE *h₃néhu₃mn̥ → NWIE *nṓmn̥, ‘name’.

PIE *pr̥néh₂mi → NWIE *pr̥nā́mi, ‘I sell’.

PIE *soh₁déi̯oh₂ → NWIE *sōdéi̯ō, ‘I settle’.

PIE *dhoh₁mós → NWIE *dʰōmós, ‘thesis, opinion’.

PIE *stóh₂nom → NWIE *stā́nom, ‘place’.

PIE *stóh₂los → NWIE *stṓlos, ‘table’.

Special case: Osthoff’s law

PIE *h₂u̯éh₁n̥tos → NWIE *u̯éntos, ‘wind’.

PIE *meh₁msóm → NWIE *mē̌msóm, ‘meat’.

Special case: Stang’s law

PIE *pipéh₃imi → NWIE *pipṓmi, ‘I drink’. Extended to other forms:

PIE *pipéh₃iti → NWIE *pipṓti, ‘he drinks’.

Special case: laryngal metathesis

PIE **spi̯Hutós → *spi̯uHtós → NWIE *spi̯ūtós, ‘spat’ (part.).

PIE **bʰh₂utós → *bʰuh₂tós → NWIE *bʰūtós, ‘been’.

PIE **siHutós → *si̯uHtós → NWIE *si̯ūtós, ‘sewn’.

PIE **lh₃itós → *lih₃tós → NWIE *lītós, ‘poured’.

PIE **ph₃ilós → *pih₃lós → NWIE *pīlós, ‘having drunk’.

PIE *ph₃itós → NWIE *pītós, ‘drunk’.

PIE *pHutós → NWIE *pūtós, ‘cleaned’.

PIE *liHtós → NWIE *lītós, ‘poured’.

PIE *gʷHiu̯ós → NWIE *gʷīu̯ós, ‘alive’.

Internally between two consonants

PIE *ph₂térs → NWIE *patḗr, ‘father’.

PIE *kh₃tós → NWIE *katós, ‘sharp’.

PIE *mh₂déh₁i̯oh₂ → NWIE *madḗjō, ‘I am wet’.

PIE *h₂u̯oh₁dʰh₁tós → NWIE *u̯odʰatós, ‘pushed’.

PIE *pr̥nh₂mós(i) → NWIE *pr̥namós(i), ‘we sell’.

PIE *dhidʰh₁mós(i) → NWIE *dʰidʰamós(i), ‘we put’.

PIE *stísth₂mos(i) → NWIE *stístamos(i), ‘we stand’.

PIE *dídh₃mos(i) → NWIE *dídamos(i), ‘we give’.

PIE *sth₂tós → NWIE *statós, ‘stood’.

PIE *peph₃té → NWIE *pepaté, ‘keep drinking’ (2nd pl.).

Special case: concave syllable between two consonants

PIE **sh₁déh₁i̯oh₂ → NWIE *sedḗi̯ō, ‘am seated’.

PIE **lh₁góm → NWIE *legóm, ‘I collected’.

PIE **lh₁bʰóm → NWIE *labʰóm, ‘I caught’.

PIE **luh₃óm → *lh₃u̯óm → NWIE *lou̯óm, ‘I washed’.

Internally between consonant and resonant or between two resonants

Generalised Saussure effect

Some examples are affected by the “Pinault’s law”[Byrd 2015].

PIE *tórh₁mos → NWIE *tórmos, ‘hole’.

PIE *kl̥mh₂-rós → NWIE *klamrós, ‘weak’.

PIE *gémh₁ro- → NWIE *gémros, ‘son-in-law’.

PIE *(s)porHnós → NWIE *pornós, ‘feather’.

PIE *pélh₁u → NWIE *pélu, ‘much’.

PIE *bhólh₁/₂i̯om → NWIE *bʰóli̯om, ‘leaf’.

PIE *h₂érh₃u̯r̥ → NWIE *áru̯ar, ‘grain’.

PIE *míHi̯etoi → NWIE *mī́i̯etoi, ‘decreases’.

PIE *ku̯ríh₂tor → NWIE *kʷrī́tor, ‘was bought’.

PIE *dʰúh₂lis → NWIE *dʰū́lis, ‘soot’.

PIE *bʰh₂úi̯etoi → *bʰúh₂i̯etoi → NWIE *bʰū́i̯etoi, ‘becomes, begins’.

PIE *léu̯h₂trom/ *léh₂u̯trom → NWIE *lóutrom, ‘bath’.

PIE *skélh₂tis → NWIE *skéltis, ‘splitting’.

PIE *skl̥h₂i̯oh₂- → NWIE *skl̥i̯ō, ‘I split’.

PIE *térh₁i̯oh₂ → NWIE *téri̯ō, ‘I rub’.

PIE *sokʷh₂i̯ós → NWIE *sokʷi̯ós, ‘allied’.

PIE *megh₂i̯ós → NWIE *megi̯ós, ‘bigger’.

PIE *kn̥h₁i̯ó- → NWIE *kani̯ós, ‘recent’.

PIE *gń̥h₁i̯etoi (=*gígnetoi) → NWIE *gnai̯etoi, ‘is born’.

PIE *sth₂i̯éh₁m → NWIE *stai̯ḗm / *sti̯ēm, ‘I would stand’ (aor.).

PIE *sth₂ih₁nt → NWIE *stai̯ī́nt / *stint, ‘they would stand’.

PIE *dh₃i̯éh₁m → NWIE *dai̯ḗm / *di̯ēm, ‘I would give’ (aor.).

PIE *dh₂ih₁nt → NWIE *dai̯ī́nt / *dint, ‘they would give’.

PIE *h₂u̯oh₁dʰh₁i̯óm → NWIE *wodʰai̯óm / wodʰi̯óm, ‘I pushed’ (aor).

Special case: Retention of laryngeal

PIE *h₂énh₁mos → NWIE *ánh̥mos, ‘breath, soul’, cf. Toch. A āñcäm (obl. āñm-), B āñme PToch *āñc(ä)me 'self, soul', Lat. animus, Osc. anamúm, O.Ir. animm, O. Fris. omma.

PIE *kerh₂srom → NWIE *kerh̥srom.

PIE *temh₁sreh₂es → NWIE *temh̥srās, cf. O. Ind. tamisra, Lat. Tenebrae.

Compare also e.g. PGmc. *temHs- → OHG demar, ‘twilight’, but there are also reasons to reject such reconstruction in favour of PIE *temHosó-, as O.Ind. *tamasá-, ‘dark-colored’[Müller 2007].

Special case: Internal vocalisation

PIE *sh₂neh₂mi → NWIE *sánāmi, ‘I satiate’.

PIE *térh₁dʰrom → NWIE *téredʰrom ‘auger’, cf. Lat. terebra, Gr. τέρετρον, O. Ir. Tarathar.

cf. PIE *kr̥tús → NWIE *kartús, ‘strong’.

Blocked laryngeal with a resonant

The regular reflex of *CR̥HC in Italo-Celtic is *CRāC no matter which laryngeal is involved. The ē of Italic (cf. Lat. plēnus, Umb. plener) and partially Celtic (cf. Corn. luen, Bret. leun) is likely an especial dissimilation not to confuse the word with *plānos. Analogy with the corresponding perfect is the common explanation for other results different from ā, as found in certain participles; cf. nōtus, sprētus, crētus, etc. An alternative, less likely explanation would be the continuity of the old three-laryngeal division into the Italic stage[Bolotov 2012].

PIE *pl̥h₁nós → NWIE *pl̥hnós / *plh̥nós, ‘full’; cf. Ita. *plānos, Cel.*hlēn-, *hlān-, PGmc. *fullaz, PBal. *pîlna-, PSla. *pьlnъ.

PIE *gr̥h₂nóm → NWIE *gr̥hnóm / *grh̥nóm, ‘corn’, cf. Lat. grānum, O.Ir. grān, PGmc. *kurna-, PBal. ǯirniā̃, PSla. *zьrno.

PIE *gn̥h₁tós → NWIE *gn̥htós / *gnh̥tós, ‘born’, cf. Lat. gnātus, Umb. natine, O.Ir. cned, Gaul cintu-, PGmc *kundáz, PBal. *ǯnō̂ta-.

PIE *gn̥h₃tós → NWIE *gn̥htós / *gnh̥tós, ‘known’, cf. Toch. A. āknats, aknātsa, Lat nōtus (but Lat. gnāvus<*gn̥h₃u̯ós, ‘wise’), O. Ir. gnāth, PGmc. *kundaz, PBal. *ǯint-, PSla. *žьn-.

PIE *pŕ̥h₂u̯os → NWIE *pŕ̥hu̯os / *pŕh̥u̯os, ‘first’; PToch. *pärwe, PSla. *pьrvъ.

PIE *str̥h₃tós → NWIE *str̥htós / *strh̥tós, ‘strewn’; Lat. strātus, O.Ir. sreth, PBal. *stir̂tā̂, PSla. *-stьrtъ.

PIE *gʷr̥h₂ús → NWIE *gʷrús / *gʷr̥hu̯ús / *gʷrh̥u̯ús, ‘heavy’; Lat. gravis (brutus), M.Ir. bair (bruth), PGmc. *kuru-, PBal. *grū̂ta-.

PIE *pr̥h₂tós → NWIE *pr̥htós / *prh̥tós, ‘sold’.

PIE *kŕ̥h₂tis → NWIE *kŕ̥htis / * kŕh̥tis, ‘wickerwork’.

PIE *pépr̥h₃th₂ei → NWIE *pépr̥htai / * pépŕh̥tai, ‘you got production’.

PIE *pépr̥h₂dʰi → NWIE *pépr̥hdʰi / * pépŕh̥dʰi, ‘keep selling!’.

However, no evidence for laryngeal after *r̥ can be traced in:

PIE *u̯éu̯r̥th₂ei → NWIE *u̯éu̯r̥tai / *, ‘you got found’.

Special case: Laryngeal lost by generalised Saussure effect

For example. in cases of *Cred.HRC such as:

  • *HRoC → *RoC in Proto-Greek; in NWIE the general rule is laryngeal loss for any vocalism:
    • PIE *h₃meigʰ- ‘to urinate’ → NWIE *méigʰō, *mingʰō, *moigʰós, but cf. Gk. ὀμείχ-ω/ μοιχός.
  • *CoRHC → *CoRC:
    • PIE *kólHnis → *NWIE kólnis ‘hill’.
    • PIE *sólh₂u̯o- → *sólu̯o- ‘all, the whole’.

Special case: With brief resulting vowel

PIE *pŕ̥Htis → NWIE *prátis, ‘fern’.

PIE *kń̥h₂meh₂ → NWIE *kánmā, ‘leg’.

Special case: Lost laryngeal in a compound

PIE *kompl̥h₁nós → NWIE *kompl̥nós, ‘extremely full’.

PIE *komgnh₃tós → MID *komgn̥tós, ‘completely known’, cf. Lat. cognitus.

Special case: Palma rule

PIE *pĺ̥h₂meh₂ → NWIE *pĺ̥mā, ‘palm’.

PIE *pĺ̥h₂seh₂ → NWIE *pĺ̥sā, ‘mantle, covering’.

PIE *(s)pŕ̥hxseh₂ → NWIE pŕ̥hxsā, “winged animal, sparrow’.

Similar cases: PIE *h₂/₃u̯ĺ̥h₁-neh₂ → NWIE *u̯ĺ̥nā / *uhlā́nā, ‘wool’, cf. O.Ind. ū́rṇā-.

PIE *pl̥h₂ń̥goh₂ → NWIE *plń̥gō, ‘I beat’.

PIE *gʰl̥h₃tóm → NWIE *gʰl̥tóm (not ˣghlōtóm), ‘gold’.

PIE *mĺ̥h₂dʰh₁os → NWIE *mĺ̥dʰos, ‘mild’.

PIE *skl̥h₂/₃tós → NWIE *skl̥tós (not ˣsklV̄tós), ‘split’ (part.).

PIE *pr̥nh₂énti → NWIE *pr̥nánti, ‘they sell’.

Final position before a vowel

PIE *u̯óidh₂e → NWIE *woida, ‘I know’.

PIE *u̯óid-th₂e → NWIE *woista, ‘you know’, but cf. Gr. οἶσθα, O. Ind. vettha.

Special case: vocalization of a laryngeal appendix

PIE *ste-stohu̯₂h₂e → NWIE *stéstōu̯a, ‘I am standing’.

PIE *dʰe-dʰohi₁h₂e → NWIE *dʰédʰōi̯a, ‘I have put’.

PIE *de-dohu₃h₂e → NWIE *dédōu̯a, ‘I have given’.

Final position after a vowel

PIE *dígʰeh₂ → NWIE *dígʰā, ‘goat’.

PIE *h₁roh₁₂u̯éh₂ → NWIE *rōu̯ā́.

PIE *héhi₂seh₂ → NWIE *ā́sā, ‘altar’.

PIE *gʷéneh₂ → NWIE *gʷénā, ‘woman’.

PIE *déikoh₂ → NWIE *déikō, ‘I show’.

PIE *wĺ̥kʷoeh₁ → NWIE *u̯ĺ̥kʷō, *u̯ĺ̥kʷo, ‘with (the) wolf’.

Final position after a consonant or a resonant

PIE *pleh₁i̯ósh₂ → NWIE *plēi̯ósa, ‘more’.

PIE *megh₂ → NWIE *méga, ‘big’.

PIE *Hith₂ → NWIE *íta, ‘so’.

PIE *h₁ń̥dʰh₂ → NWIE *ń̥dʰa, ‘then’.

PIE *h₃néhu₃monh₂ → NWIE *nṓmona, ‘names’.

PIE *u̯l̥kʷíh₂ → NWIE *u̯l̥kʷī́ , ‘she wolf’.

PIE *u̯ŕ̥h₂dih₂ → NWIE *u̯ŕ̥hdī / *u̯ŕ̥hdjā, ‘root’.

PIE *bʰh₂mésdʰh₂ → NWIE *bʰamésdʰa, ‘we speak’ .

PIE *bʰh₂u̯ésdʰh₂ → NWIE *bʰawésdʰa, ‘we two speak’.

Kortlandt effect

PIE **úddʰh₁r̥ → *úh₁dʰh₁r̥ → NWIE *ū́dʰr̥, ‘udder’.

PIE *dédr(H)is → NWIE *dḗris, ‘separation’, cf. Gr. δῆρις ‘dispute’, O. Ind. veṇu-dāri-.

PIE *tr̥dtós → NWIE *tr̥htós (<**tr̥h₁tós) ‘pierced’.

PIE **médmi → *meh₁mi → NWIE *mḗmi, ‘I measure’.

PIE *h₂éhi₂dmi → **h₂eh1₂h₁mi → NWIE *ā́mi, *ādmi, cf. *aidhō ‘I burn’.

PIE *gʰdéh₂u̯r̥ → **gʰh₁éh₂u̯r̥ → NWIE *gʰḗu̯r̥, ‘emptiness’.

PIE *bʰidtrós → **bʰih₁trós → NWIE *bʰītrós, ‘trunk’.

Exceptions

PIE *penkʷédkm̥th₂ → NWIE *penqédkm̥ta, ‘fifty’, but cf. O. Ind. pañcāśát- <*penkʷéh₁km̥th₂.

PIE *h₂ed → NWIE *ad, ‘at, to’, but cf. O. Ind. ā < *h₂eh₁.

PIE *Hud → NWIE *ud, ‘outside’.

Consonantal change

PIE *piph₃oh₂ → NWIE *píbō, ‘I drink’.

Martinet’s rule

PIE *h₃ésteh₂? → NWIE *kóstā, ‘rib’.

PIE *dʰh₁Hjoh₂ → NWIE *dʰáki̯ō, ‘I do’.

References

  • [Bolotov 2012] ^ Bolotov, S.G. 2012. Three ways of representation of Indo-European long sonants in Latin. Paper read at Indo-European linguistics and classical philology: proceedings of the Conference in memory of professor Joseph M. Tronsky, June 18-20, 2012, at St. Petersburg.
  • [Byrd 2015] ^ Byrd, Andrew Miles. 2015. Motivating Pinault's Law. In The Indo-European Syllable. Leiden / Boston: Brill.
  • [Holzer 1989] ^ Holzer, Georg. 1989. Entlehnungen aus einer bisher unbekannten indogermanischen Sprache im Urslavischen und Urbaltischen. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
  • [Müller 2007] ^ Müller, Stefan. 2007. Zum Germanischen aus laryngaltheoretischer Sicht : mit einer Einführung in die Grundlagen [der Laryngaltheorie]. Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.